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3G stands for the 3rd Generation (the third generation of mobile communication system). With the advent of 3G, mobile phones were able to exchange larger volume of data in addition to making voice calls.


4G stands for the 4th Generation (the fourth generation of mobile communication system), referred to as a wireless communication standard for the next-generation mobile communication system succeeding 3G. Currently, it is assumed more that LTE is 4G.


An amplifier is the name of an appliance to amplify signals. For instance, it is used to compensate for transmission losses made by coaxial cables when radio waves, received by devices such as antennas, are transmitted to tuners through coaxial cables.

Anechoic chamber

An anechoic chamber is a facility which measures the performance of antennas. The entire chamber is covered with metallic sheets, blocking outside radio waves from coming into the chamber. The five faces of the walls and ceiling, or the six faces also including the floor, which are taped with radio wave absorbers, prevent the reflection of radio waves created inside the chamber, enabling them to directly reach antennas to be measured.


An antenna is a device receiving and sending radio waves. It efficiently emits (transmits) electric signals in space which come out from transceivers such as mobile phones, or efficiently receives electric signals in space which are then transmitted to electric circuits of transceivers.


Bluetooth is the name of one of short distance wireless communication standards. This wireless communication standard employs a technology called frequency hopping which transmits information by randomly changing the frequencies used. It uses the frequency bandwidth of 2.4GHz. For instance, drivers connect smartphones and car audio equipment, and can use them as "hands-free" in automobiles.


It is a technology which restores an original signal from a modulated signal, in which demodulation is made in accordance with each modulation method. Through demodulation, information of audio and video signals can be obtained for analog methods, while digital signals of 1 and 0 and other information can be obtained for digital methods.

Digital radio

It refers to the radio broadcasting using digital methods. Compared with analog methods, sounds reproduced by digital methods are noiseless and clearer. There are digital broadcasting standards such as DAB (terrestrial broadcasting standard used in Europe, Southeastern Asia and Oceania), SDARS (satellite broadcasting standard used in North America), IBOC (terrestrial broadcasting standard used in North America), DRM (terrestrial broadcasting standard used in Europe and India) and others.

Directional antenna

A directional antenna is an antenna which transmits radio waves only in specific directions, or receives radio waves coming only from specific directions.


DSRC is the abbreviation for Dedicated Short Range Communication, which is a wireless communication method utilizing 5.8GHz frequency bandwidth used for ITS (or Intelligent Transport Systems.) DSRC is scheduled to be used for telecommunication between automobiles on roads, and for Electronic Road Pricing systems at fast foods stores, gas stations etc.

Electromagnetic noise

Electronic equipment may make unintended behaviors or be damaged in some cases, when the equipment is exposed to strong electromagnetic waves coming from outside. Such electromagnetic wave coming from outside to damage equipment is called electromagnetic noise.

Emergency call system

In the event of an automobile accident such as a crash, an emergency call system enables information, such as on airbags and various shock sensors, as well as the location of the accident (GPS coordinates, for instance) to be automatically sent out to an emergency call center, not involving any human operations.
In the European region, there is the e-Call Project which promotes to make it mandatory for all new vehicles to be equipped with automatic emergency call systems.


ETC is the abbreviation for Electronic Toll Collection System, which is the name of the service operated using a part of frequencies for the DSRC telecommunication method. In Japan, it is widely used as an electronic road pricing system on expressways.

Field Test

Testing under the conditions for actual usages. For instance, testing an antenna installed in an automobile is to check if the antenna properly receives radio waves and performs well, while driving the vehicle in the regions where radio waves are weak or buildings are concentrated.


It is also called oscillation frequency. As for antennas, it means the frequency of waves of electricity (radio waves); representing how frequently the radio wave oscillates for a minute. Frequencies are expressed with the unit of "Hertz (Hz)." HARADA's products handle the frequencies ranging from a few hundreds kHz to a few GHz.


Gain is a performance figure expressed in the unit of decibel (dB), which shows how superior or inferior the equipment's performance is against the standard figure. In case of antennas, the unit of "dBi" based on the isotropic antenna and that of "dBd" based on the dipole antenna are employed.


GNSS stands for Global Navigation Satellite System, and calculates the coordinate of the current location using satellite signal reception by antennas. Representative systems include which covers the GPS of the United States, the GLONASS of Russia, the Galileo of Europe and the Compass (BeiDou) of China.


LPA stands for Low Profile Antenna and is a trademark of HARADA (some LPAs are currently under trademark application). It is a collective term for low profile antennas such as shark-fin type ones.


LTE is the abbreviation for Long Term Evolution. It is a communication standard, accomplished through a "long-term evolution" of the third generation of mobile communication system (3G). It was developed to facilitate a smooth transition to the fourth generation (4G), thus it is sometimes called the 3.9 generation of mobile communication system. Currently, however, LTE is often called 4G, as it is officially admitted as 4G.


Modulation is a technology which formulates modulated signals by changing amplitudes, frequencies and phases of carrier waves, which are radio waves for transmitting information. For instance, this technology is used for placing information (such as audio and video signals for analog methods; digital signals of 1 and 0 and other information for digital methods) on carrier waves.

Omnidirectional antenna

An omnidirectional antenna is an antenna which radiates radio waves in all directions or receives radio waves coming from all directions.

Radio wave

Radio wave refers to electric energy flowing in space. It is a type of electromagnetic wave, and the types are classified according to the number of frequencies.
Frequency bandwidths of radio waves are relatively low among electromagnetic waves, and electromagnetic waves with less than 3THz (Terahertz) are generally called radio waves. The waves ranging from 3THz to 10,000THZ are called light waves and those of more than 10,000THz are called radioactive waves.

Software-defined radio

Software-defined radio indicates overall technologies, which make multiple wireless communication standards, employing different frequency bandwidths and modulation methods etc., be compatible by altering software of wireless communication equipment. Software-defined radio, or SDR, enables to commonalize equipment and facilities.

STP Cable

STP Cable is the abbreviation for Shielded Twisted Pair Cable. It is the twisted pair cable covered with shielding materials such as braided materials so as to enhance noise resistance. This cable is employed for wired connections to the Internet or automotive rear-view camera systems. On contrary, a twisted pair cable, not covered with shielding materials, is called UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable.


TCU is the abbreviation for Telematics Communication Unit. This automobile telecommunication unit, through a combination of a satellite navigation system (such as GPS) and a mobile communication system used for mobile phones and others, enables human operators' supports in case of emergencies and the acquisition of periphery information of the vehicle.


Telematics is a coined term, combining "Telecommunication" and "Informatics," which enables real-time exchanges of information services by installing telecommunication systems in automobiles.


Tuner is the name of device which replays audio and video signals etc. of radio waves received by antennas and others.
For instance, TV tuners replay audio and video signals coming from the received radio waves and send them out to speakers and monitors.


Wi-Fi is the name of one of wireless LAN standards. It is a method for interconnection of electronic devices, approved by Wi-Fi Alliance (an industry organization based in the United States). Wi-Fi mainly uses the frequency bandwidths of 2.4GHz and 5GHz. It is widely used for the Internet connections of PCs and smartphones, and many public places, including stations and restaurants, offer Wi-Fi access services.